Posts Tagged ‘Learning’
Comission on Instructional Technology, 1970:
A systematic way of designing, implementing, and evaluating the whole process of teaching and learning in the form of specific learning objectives, based on research in learning theory and communication in humans and using a combination of learning resources from human and non-human to make learning more effective.
Thus, this concept by main purpose of learning technology is to make a more effective learning. How can it be done? By way of designing, implementing and evaluating systematically based on the theory of communication and learning course, and utilize all the resources both human and non-human. thus, since the 1970′s, there was a view that human beings (in this case the teacher) is not the only source of learning.
AECT (1972): T
Education technology is a field / discipline in facilitating human learning through the identification, development, and utilization organizing systematically through the entire resource management process of learning and all that.
Similar but not identical, is not it? Based on this understanding, clearly said that educational technology is a discipline that focuses on facilitating learning in humans. So the object of formal education within the meaning of this technology is how to facilitate learning. In what ways? Through the identification, development, and utilization of systematically organizing all learning resources. In addition, through the good and proper management of the process rather than development, and utilization organizing systematically all the learning resources.
Technology Education is a complex process that includes an integrated people, procedures, ideas, facilities and organization for analyzing problems and designing, implementing, assessing and managing problem solving in all aspects of human learning.
This is the definition of the most “complicated” in my opinion. But, it is clear according to this sense that the formal object education technology is solving the problem of human learning. Done by analyzing an issue first, then implement, assess and manage the solution of the problem.
Instructional technology is the theory and practice in designing, developing, utilizing, managing, and assessing the processes and learning resources.
This definition is more operational than the formula in 1977 which I think is too complicated. This definition confirms the existence of five domains (areas) of learning technology, namely the design, development areas, the utilization, management area, and areas for process assessment and learning resources. A learning technologist can only focus on one area of his claim in the region.
Tom Cutchall (1999) definition according Cutchal AECT definition is the same as 1994. He stressed that learning technology is a research and behavioral science applications and theory of learning by using a systems approach to the analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation and management of the use of technology to help solve the problem of learning and performance. The ultimate goal is the use of technology (soft-hard-technology and technology) to help solve the problem of learning and performance human.
This is a new definition which states that educational technology is the study and ethical practice in an effort to facilitate learning and improve performance by creating, using / utilizing, and managing the process and sources of appropriate technology. Clearly, the ultimate goal remains to facilitate learning (to be effective, efficient and attractive / Joyfull) and improve performance.
Based on the above definitions can be concluded that:
• learning technologies / technology education is a discipline / field (field of study)
• the terms learning technology is used interchangeably with the term educational technology
• The main purpose of learning technologies are (1) to solve the problem of learning or facilitate learning, and (2) to improve performance;
• to realize the approach SYSTEM(yag holistic approach / comprehensive, not partial approach);
• the learning technology may include activities related to the analysis, design, development, utilization, management, implementation and evaluation processes as well as learning resources.
• learning technologies are not only engaged in schooling but also in all human activities (such as businesses, families, community organizations, etc.) to the extent related to efforts to suss out the problem of learning and performance improvement.
• is the technology here is a technology in the broadest sense, not just the physical technology (hardtech), but also soft technology (softtech)
Incoming search terms:
- what is education technology
Behavior of student learning, in educational psychology, learning is defined as a process of individual efforts to acquire a new behavior change as a result overall experience the individual in interaction with their environment. In connection with this learning process, which should be known right by teachers is what is called metacognition and social-psychological perceptions of students. With metacognition is knowledge of an individual learning processes and outcomes that occurred in him as well as related matters. This implies that, for the learning process can take place effectively, the student should be able to know the process and results that occurred in him. For that teachers should help students recognize and capable. The meaning of socio-psychological perception is to what extent students perceive the learning process that goes along with the influential situations.
Behavioral learning outcomes include cognitive, affective and psychomotor. The teacher is expected to be able to anticipate aspects of this behavior change that began with the planning of teaching and learning activities, and develop it after learning ends. With effective learning behaviors with proper teaching process, the teaching-learning process is expected to produce human beings who have the characteristics: (1) an independent person, (2) an effective learner, (3) workers who are productive, (4 ) members of the public good. To realize such a human quality, then there is a four-quality learning must be developed within the students, namely: (1) learning to be (learning to do), (2) learning to learn (learning to learn), (3) learning to do (learning to do), (4) learn to live together (learning to live together)
Teaching behavior of teachers, teachers are able to realize the current required to teach proper behavior to be an effective learning behaviors in students. Teachers are also in demand to create a situation conducive Study abroad-study. Teachers are not limited as a teacher within the meaning of the transmitter of knowledge, but rather increased as the designer of teaching, teaching managers, evaluators and learning outcomes as a director of the study.
In realizing right teaching behaviors, teacher characteristics that are expected are:
- Has a strong interest in the classes and subjects taught lesson.
- Have the ability to predict personality accurately ddan mood and makes contact with the group as appropriate.
- Have patience, familiarity, and the sensitivity needed to foster the spirit of learning.
- Have imaginative thinking (conceptual) and practical in an effort to explain to students pesrta.
- Have adequate qualifications in the field, both the content and methods.
- Having an open attitude, flexible, and experimental methods and techniques dam.
Teachers will teach well if they have the basic attitude is right, the right target, the factual information necessary to understand the various methods and techniques and learn how to select it, and help students in planning follow-up
Manifestation of the behavior of teachers as teachers and students as learners would visible on the interaction between the two. In this interaction occurs so that the interplay of behavioral changes in themselves in the form of student achievement of learning outcomes. There are at least three things in a student-teacher interaction is study process, teaching methods, and patterns of interaction.
Learning model that is considered quite comprehensive, developed by Ernest Chang and Don Simpson, “The circle of learning: Individual and Group Process” according to this model, learning can take place not only individual responsibility, but can be in the form of collaborative groups through the process of life. This model is based on the paradigm of the relationship between activity and orientation. In the ongoing process of learning there are two dimensions, namely the dimensions of the learning activity and process-oriented dimension. Two-dimensional relationship that resulted in four patterns of learning, namely: (1) traditional lectures or traditional lectures, (2) self-study or independent study, (3) concurrent with learning or learning, (4) colaborative learning or collaborative learning.
Comments / reflection:
In this chapter we can recognize and apply various psychological aspects in the overall educational activities especially during the learning process. The psychological aspect here is be discussed aspects of individual behavior related with teaching and learning process. As we know in the process of this activity involves individual interaction between students and teachers behavior meaningful aspects of student learning behavior and teaching behavior of teachers.
In the process of realizing an effective and efficient teaching the learning behavior of students and teachers can teach behavior at in his dynamic well. Instructor (teacher) should be able to realize the right to teach the behavior to be able to realize the students’ learning behavior through the interaction of effective teaching and learning in the teaching-learning situation is conducive.
LEARNING ASPECTS OF CONDUCT
Motivation can be interpreted as an attempt to cause or increase the impetus to realize certain behaviors are directed toward achieving a particular goal. Learning behavior occurs in situations of teaching and learning interactions in achieving objectives and learning outcomes. In various theoretical studies, there were close links between satisfaction achieved in the premises learn performance and motivation. Satisfaction derived from prosse students learn to demonstrate the performance and can increase the motivation to learn. Performance is achieved a person can get satisfaction and then to increase the motivation, in this connection should be created an atmosphere of learning in such a way so as to give satisfaction to be able to produce a good performance. Factors affecting student satisfaction in learning that rewards learning outcomes, a sense of security in the study, adequate learning conditions, the opportunity to expand the self, personal relationships.
There are several principles of motivation that can be used as a reference, namely the principle of competition, the principle of hyper, prinsipganjaran and penalties, clarity and immediacy of purpose, understanding the results, development interest, a conducive environment, exemplary.
Observation and attention to an aspect of behavior that has an important role in learning proese. Effectiveness of a quality of the learning process be heavily influenced by observation and attention given. Observation or perception, is a form of cognitive behavior, a process known environment using sensing devices. Observation process occurs because of stimulation from the environment are received by individuals denan enggunaan sensing devices. Stimulation was then forwarded to the center of consciousness, the brain for later be given meaning and interpretation. Judging from the proportion of the sensory organs there are several observations that style: style of visual, auditory style, the style of tactile, kinesthetic style.
Attention can be defined as an increase in mental activity to a particular stimulus. Attention may focus more individual observations to a stimulus, sehinnga observations become more effective. Teachers can help students maintain focus attention in the learning process with the following matters:
- Cues, provide specific cues to students at the start of the lesson or at the turn of the activity.
- Motion, constantly moving and traveling around the classroom during the present study.
- Variation, using a style variation in the style of teaching.
- Interest, providing the student’s interest before and during proes teaching.
Comments / reflection:
In this chapter discussed the psychological aspects tekait with learning and attention to the psychological concept teaching. With expected the teachers to develop learning strategies as effectively as possible. Aspects covered are:
1. Motivation, in relation to the teachers have the responsibility and obligation to motivate learning and help to avoid the possibility of frustration.
2. Observation and attention, the activity at school the teacher must see to it that students can make observations in order to obtain an effective learning outcomes as well as possible. In teaching should provide students opportunity to make observations epada good.
3. Remembering and forgetting, the task is to assist teachers in the learning process so siswwa materials that students can learn to remember dnga baikdan avoid forgetting.
Transer in the study.
Incoming search terms:
- aspect of behavior
- 7 aspect of behavior
- aspects of teaching that give satisfaction
- Learning proper behavior for school is called?